D & C 132, part 2

There was a question about Section 132 received after this post.  The previous post on D&C 132 did not address the underlying subject of the section.  I only discussed the text divisions and timing of the document’s creation.  The question I received asks about the substance of the revelation, and in particular, the status of women in plural marriage. 

 
I have a few observations which color my views of this subject.  This will take a few posts, but below is my first set of observations:
 
When plural marriage was first introduced publicly in the 1850s, the brethren were rather candid about the history of monogamy.  They explained that the societal and governmental institution of monogamy was intended to exploit women.  By depriving women of husbands, it resulted in an excess number of women who could be prostituted.  Men could then have one wife, for whom they bore the burden of support and shared parenting responsibilities, while other women could be used without any burden of support or shared parenting duties.  The brethren also explained that one of the reasons Rome was originally opposed to Christianity was because it was a cult that threatened to spread the practice of plural marriage throughout the Empire.  Their comments are in the Journal of Discourses and you can read these explanations there if you are interested.
 
So as the practice of plural marriage was introduced publicly, it was accompanied by an attack on monogamy; claiming that women were exploited and disadvantaged by the practice of monogamy.  This inverts the argument against plural marriage.  The claims against it were based in large measure upon the notion that it exploited women and made them subservient.  So the argument turns on its ear the “exploits women” card.
 
When introduced, the practice of plural marriage ran counter to nearly two thousand years of cultural practice.  It was decidedly counter to the Elizabethan mores of the age.  It was shocking to the Latter-day Saints who learned of the practice.  Not only was it foreign in concept, but the Saints had absolutely no basis for implementing it successfully.  They had no history, no example, no trial-and-error wisdom.  There were no previous examples that they could select behaviors from that would help solve obvious issues arising from the practice.  So they began the whole trial-and-error sorting out.  
 
Unfortunately. the practice was introduced in 1853 (publicly) and died in 1890 (publicly).  It began secretly in 1831 and died secretly in 1904.  Whether you take the public bracket of time or the secret bracket, that isn’t enough time for the process to have resulted in handed-down wisdom gained by living that kind of lifestyle.
 
Those who are outside the Latter-day Saint community (fundamentalists, etc.), and have continued to practice of plural marriage do not really provide a basis for inter-generational wisdom.  They live a “bunker-like mentality” – always under siege and never allowed the social and cultural opportunity to practice this form of marriage freely and openly.  The results of these efforts are tainted by the hostility, rejection and prosecution by the population at large towards those who try to live this kind of marital relationship.
 
How the view of women changes under this practice is something that we are not in a position to evaluate accurately. We have a cultural bias, an historic bias and religious bias that colors our view. We do not have a reasonable framework from which to make a neutral evaluation of the subject.  The only contemporary societies that have plural marriage in any significant numbers are so socially ill, so backward and violent that a liberal, democratic and open society cannot take any wisdom from them to judge this matter. We are left to look backward into biblical times for clues about the practice.  Unfortunately, even there we do not get much guidance or many examples of happy outcomes.  Hagar, a princess from Egypt, was at odds with Sarah and ultimately so incompatible that one had to leave.  Jacob’s wives were competitive and jealous. The account we have seems to make Jacob responsible for exploiting these ill-feelings.  David’s relationships were unsteady.  Solomon was ultimately led into idolatry by his foreign, political marriages.  The biblical record does not seem to give any hope of a happy outcome (or at least not much hope).  So when trying to evaluate it, there is little happy news or basis for celebrating it as a triumph of matrimony.
 
Then there is the underlying exploitation of young women. These women are married and pregnant so early in life that they are essentially obligated to remain in the marriage.  I think that is a reflection of the unhappiness that is anticipated by such unions.  The younger bride syndrome seems to be a tacit admission that unless you put the women into this kind of difficult bind (choosing between their children or fleeing), then women won’t remain in the marriage.  This is an interesting admission seen in both the Muslim communities and in the Fundamentalist communities. It betrays a similar state of unease about women’s desire to remain in such relationships.
 
All in all the practice does not seem to offer (in this life) much advantage to either husband or wife.  Nor does it seem to produce happiness here.  You can read the book In Sacred Loneliness as an account of our own history with the difficulties of the practice.
 
Now that doesn’t address the “doctrinal” question asked.  I’ll post again on that issue.  However, when you consider the revelation, this is the first point that should be on the table. It is a terrible sacrifice. No society appears to have had much success in implementing it. The “practical” verses the “ideal” is something that tells us important information.
 
Humanity has not been able to create a widespread social experiment using this form of marriage, notwithstanding its basis in doctrine. At least not one that has been well documented, with wisdom to guide the way. There are of course societies where the economic order consists of a widespread slave class supporting a socially dominant, wealthy class.  In these societies, escape from hunger and enslavement requires a plural marriage arrangement.  In these circumstances, plural marriage is greeted as a form of liberation.  I do not consider those worthy examples.  We don’t want or expect to build Zion on the backs of a slave class.

“Schizophrenic?”

I was asked why there are sometimes “criticisms” of the church on my blog and in the books I have written.  Someone would like to know whether or not the views I advance weren’t “schizophrenic” by both criticizing and defending the church, and what my true belief about the church was.  I responded:
 
I have had many people with whom I have “ministered” as a Gospel Doctrine Teacher, Ward Mission Leader and High Councilor who have become disaffected with the church.  I’ve worked to help them come back.  What I write reflects this history with these struggling Latter-day Saints.  There are many people who have left the church (or have given up on the church) who have read what I write and come back to activity again.  
 
There are those who are in the process of realizing that the church has flaws who now want to quit.  There are people who have begun to encounter problems who just don’t know how to process them.  It doesn’t do any good if I pretend there aren’t problems.  Many of these saints have a crisis underway because they have been pretending, and now they find they cannot cope with the tension any longer.  
 
One of posts at the beginning of this blog describes what my attitude is. I recognize weaknesses, have no intention of avoiding them, and am not an apologist in the traditional sense.  But I believe in the church, accept its authority, and think its role is necessary and even critical to the work of the Lord.
 
Acknowledging the flaws is admitting the obvious.  But getting those who are discouraged, losing their faith, or have left the church to reconsider that decision is another thing.  They cannot be reached spiritually without some acknowledgment of the problems in the church.  They aren’t going to be deceived by offering a clever polemical argument. 
 
Once the varnish comes off the institution of the church, for many, faith dies. But that is not necessary.  Nor is it inevitable.  It is possible to see the frailties of men and still also see the hand of God.
 
I’ve had many conversations with what would be regarded as leading Mormon educators, writers, and authorities who have essentially lost their faith and continue to hold on to being a “Latter-day Saint” because of the culture or employment or family.  I’m trying to help them and any others in a similar spot.  I’m trying to say that the church may be flawed, but despite that, it is worthy, worthwhile, necessary and good.  I have had some success.  
 
I’ve had a number of men and women tell me that I’ve helped rescue them from their faithlessness.  What I have written has helped them balance their attitudes.  People who have had their names removed voluntarily, or who have been excommunicated, or who have drifted into inactivity have been persuaded by what I’ve written to see what they have lost by that disassociation from the Church.
 
It may be that someone who has “rose colored glasses” will find some of what I write difficult to take in, particularly if they haven’t encountered any particular criticism about the church before.  I regret when that happens.  However, all of us are going to need to confront the growing array of arguments against the church and its leadership as time goes on.  Some of the church’s most effective critics are former members.  Indeed, with the internet, the arguments against the church are multiplying, as are the number of critics. I try not to gloss over the flaws or ignore their existence or to pretend that there aren’t legitimate questions being asked about what has or is happening within the institution of the church. I’m saying that we can and should have faith anyway. The church matters and its mission has always been possible to accomplish.
 
I also want those who sense we’ve retreated from the original scope of doctrine and practice to realize the fullness of the Gospel of Jesus Christ remains on the earth.  It is as accessible to anyone living today as it was while Joseph was here.  The failure of others does not impose any limitation upon the individual who sincerely seeks, asks and follows. We are not dependent upon others or even the institution itself to receive that fullness.  Although the ordinances offered by the church remain the foundation upon which the fullness must be built.

D&C 46: 13 – 14

I was asked whether D&C 46: 13-14 meant that only some could see the Lord while others would have to rely on their testimony.  I responded:
It could mean:
1.  Some (and only some) will know Him, and others will be able to believe on their words (but will not know Him).
or,

2.  Some, initially less than all, will know Him, and others will, initially, believe on their words.  But if the others who believe on their words follow the same path as those who know Him, they will also grow to know Him as well.

The correct choice between these two is described in Nephi’s account where he could not believe his father, Lehi.  Then he prayed and the Lord “visited” him by softening his heart so he could believe his father’s words.  Then he developed faith to receive stronger impressions, and acted consistent with them.  Then he was able to “hear” the Lord by continuing on that path.  Finally he had angels minister to him and prepare him to receive an audience with the Lord.  And, after remaining true and faithful to the path, he at last received an audience with the Lord.  
Nephi’s spiritual development is described in detail in the early chapters of The Second Comforter: Conversing with the Lord Through the Veil

D&C 93:1 says “every soul” not just a few.  Not just a select group.  But “every soul.”  I believe it means all.  Not just a few; while others are relegated to believing on their words.

D&C 46: 14 is talking about where people begin.  Not where they finish.

Presiding Patriarchs

I was asked the names of the various Presiding Patriarchs of the church.

 
First, Joseph Smith, Sr., the father of Joseph Smith.  Served from 1833 to 1840.
 
Second, Hyrum Smith, older brother of Joseph Smith.  Served from 1841 to 1844.
 
Third, William Smith, brother to Joseph Smith.  Served from May 1845 to October 1845.
 
There was an interval between 1845 and 1847 while the Church moved west when the office was not filled.  John Smith was called in 1847 and served until 1854.
 
Fifth, John Smith, who served from 1855 until 1911.
 
Sixth, Hyrum G. Smith, who served from 1912 until 1932.
 
Seventh, Joseph F. Smith II who served from 1942 to 1946.
 
Eighth, Eldred G. Smith who began in 1947 and still serves, although as emeritus since 1979.

President Monson

Why I admire President Monson.

Christ’s denunciation of the Scribes and Pharisees included the caution that the outward observances of the law were less important than the “weighter matters of the law, judgment, mercy, and faith.”  (Matt. 23: 23.)
 
James, the brother of Jesus and Presiding Bishop of the New Testament Church, whom I regard as the unidentified “Teacher of Righteousness” taught that “Pure religion and undefiled before God and the Father is this, To visit the fatherless and widows in their affliction, and to keep himself unspotted from the world.”  (James 1: 27.)
 
Thomas Monson’s lifelong ministry to the widows, elderly and fatherless is sincere, real and lasting.  One of the widows to whom he paid a visit a few short months ago was my wife’s grandmother, the great-grandmother to my children. At the time, she was confined to an assisted-living home.  Without any advance notice President Monson showed up on a stormy Sunday afternoon.  Due to the weather conditions, the care center had decided to cancel their Sacrament Meeting.  He came through the storm, put the meeting back into place, and conducted this Sabbath celebration for the confined, elderly widows and widowers.
 
He lives that “pure religion” which includes the “weighter matters” that, above all else, we ought not leave undone.
 
Virtues are worthy of recognition. I like to take a lead from the Egyptian judgment scale and to weigh a man’s heart against a feather to decide another man’s worthiness before God.  For with what judgment we judge we shall be judged.  (Matt. 7: 2.)

April 6

It is April 6th.  This is the day Latter-day Saints regard as the birth date of the Lord.  His coming into the world in the springtime symbolized the new hope found in Him.  Creation begins anew with the return of light, warming of the earth, flowering of trees and plant life.  Springtime is when the sheep, cattle and other animals bring their young into the world.  It is a time of hope in the cycles of nature.  His coming at this time confirms His role as the Bringer of Hope.

 
He came to redeem the world that all may be saved by Him.

Unique and individual experiences

Every life is a miracle.  Every lifetime unique. How amazing is life and the wondrous experiences we are privileged to receive while here. We cannot really see what is inside another person because their experiences have been unique to them and cannot be shared.
 
We should resolve all doubts about someone’s motivation or heart in favor of them.  It is always best to be slow to judge and quick to forgive.

My father would say: “I never spoke a word in anger that I didn’t later regret.”  He was a wise man.  I think that is good advice for all of us.

Encouragement and example

All the prophets can do is offer encouragement to others.  They can affirm that the path back to God exists and can be walked even in a day of sin like today.  They cannot do the walking for anyone other than themselves.  Each person is obligated to walk on the path for him or herself.
 
Examples of others offer encouragement, but can never replace the obligation devolving upon each individual.
 
It would be easier for a person to live in harmony with God in obscurity than with public notice.  Sometimes, however, the Lord requires a person to take a public stand as part of the trial or obligation imposed upon the them.  Whether the person complies with that duty is a measure of the person’s sincerity.

“What it Means and What it does not Mean”

I was asked about the meaning of receiving the Second Comforter.  There is a chapter in the book (The Second Comforter: Conversing with the Lord Through the Veil) titled “What it Means and What it Does Not Mean” that summarizes the matter.
 
Life here is complex and sometimes difficult.  You have both moral and legal obligations which every one of us owe to society, to employment, to friends and neighbors, the Church, the government, the civil and criminal law and taxing authorities.  Some obligations are not “moral,” but nevertheless binding and controlling.  Being taxed, for example, is not a moral matter, but it is a legal matter.  Governments obligate their citizens to pay them and all citizens are required to do so.  No matter what your standing before God may be, you are going to have to pay taxes.  Christ made that clear when He paid taxes and responded to the question about taxes by confirming the obligation.  (See Matt. 22: 15-22.)
 
The promises of God are helpful in enduring to the end.  But they have no value here apart from peace of mind.  They are not “property” which this world will value highly.  They are for the coming life.

Moderator Comment

Comments, when posted, are posted as written.  We do not vouch for their accuracy, their doctrinal soundness or anything else.  

Some comments are personal and are not meant to be posted.  We read each and every one.  An honest attempt is made to address each one.  Thank you for your patience.  

Some comments disagree with the post.  We will not debate the comments that are made, but hope they are of value to those of you who are reading this blog.  

We appreciate you and your comments. 

Section 132

I have written that it is my view that Section 132 is not a single revelation, but as many as five.  I was asked about how I divide Section 132.  Before I respond a few words of explanation:
First, the version we have was written in 1843 at the request of Hyrum.  He (Hyrum) intended to take it to Emma and persuade her it was from God.  Hyrum knew this revelation had been a continuing source of friction between Joseph and Emma and he offered to try and get Emma to accept its truthfulness.  So Joseph agreed to dictate it.  The scribe was summoned, and Hyrum asked if he should retrieve the Urum and Thummim.  Joseph responded that he could recite it from memory, and then dictated it as it now appears in Section 132.

There were two copies made.  The one Hyrum took to Emma was burned by Emma.  The second came west and was ultimately made public in the 1850’s and added to the scriptures.

The dating of the revelation is uncertain, but the headnote to Section 132 notes that “the principles involved in this revelation had been known by the Prophet since 1831.”  (Section 132, headnote.)  Given the uncertainty of dating, the typical approach by scholars has been to date it from when the first practice began.  I think that is wrong.  I would date it from the time Joseph translated Jacob, Chapter 2, in 1829.  Joseph prayed during the translation of the Book of Mormon to receive the visitation of John the Baptist and the ordinance of baptism.  I see no reason why the translation of Jacob ‘s comments on plural wives would not have provoked a similar inquiry and revelation.

We know the information was suppressed from at least 1831 to 1843.  What we do not have is an earlier version from which to reconstruct the entire process; we only have the finished product in 1843.  With that, I think the revelation divides into sections as follows:

First, the original revelation begins in the first verse and continues until verse 40.  This is concerned with one subject and provides the doctrinal and historical basis for the practice of plural wives.  However, the subject changes in verse 41 and comes in response to another inquiry regarding the subject of adultery.
The answer to the question on adultery is a separate revelation beginning in response to Joseph’s inquiry in verse 41 and continuing through verse 50.  That revelation confirms upon Joseph the sealing authority by the voice of God (a separate issue altogether) and pronounces Joseph’s calling and election sure.  This is the voice of the Lord to Joseph confirming his exaltation and it is unlikely to have happened at the same time as the original revelation in 1829 or 1831.  [It is important that this conferral of authority to seal, and his calling and election are contemporaneous events.  This is not well understood by the church today, but nevertheless true.]
Verses 51 through 56 are a revelation to Emma which appears to be separate as well.  It makes no sense to have this revelation given to instruct, warn and counsel Emma until after she learns of the first revelation and has reacted to it.  Once that has happened, a separate revelation to her about her reaction makes sense.
Because of Emma’s refusal after her warning, the final section from verses 61 through the end is a new explanation of the law.  It talks about how to proceed in light of her (or any woman’s) rejection of the principle.
These are four of the potential five sections which appear to me.  It is possible that verses 64-66 are also separate from verses 61-63, which would then make five total revelations which are grouped into this single section of the D&C.
Now, what is important about this revelation being in separate parts (to me at least) is that first, the subject was not fully understood by Joseph when first received.  He encountered practical and doctrinal questions even after the first revelation came on the subject.  That is commonly experienced by all who receive revelation from God.  Additionally, it is important that the sealing authority was given to Joseph by the word of the Lord, in revelation to him, apart from the events in the Kirtland Temple.  This is consistent with how that authority came to Helaman in chapter 10 of Helaman, as well.  The voice of the Lord speaking about exaltation and conferring authority at the same moment is the Lord’s way of doing things.  It was no different for Joseph.
Now, least anyone be confused or begin asking questions about plural wives, I do not believe in the practice.  It was discontinued and we do not practice it.  I have addressed the polygamists’ claims to the right to continue the practice in Beloved Enos and my position is as I stated there. 

Creation Ceremonies

I was asked about the creation account being tied to ritual initiation ceremonies.  All the ancient accounts of creation were given in connection with initiations or ceremonial rites.  That is true of the Egyptians, Babylonians, Israelites, Babylonians, Hopis, etc.  The ritualized explanation of the origin of human life is tied together with the meaning of life, and obligations about how life was to be lived, and what the afterlife will hold.  The restored Temple rights are consistent with the most ancient of traditions.

Interestingly, the rites of the Masons do not have this basic orientation, and are therefore not part of the tradition from which the endowment ceremony springs.

Las Vegas

We returned from Las Vegas.  I have an assortment of observations:
They didn’t have a law school there just a few years ago, and lawyers were scarce.  They’ve been able to make up for the shortage I can tell from the billboards.  Lawyers do traffic tickets for $50 and DUI’s for $700.  They get catchy phone numbers like 444-4444; and if you want a “half-priced” one he’s 400-4000.  Not sure what a half-priced lawyer amounts to.
 Sex still sells, apparently.  At least the advertisers think so.  I wonder if Lot would live in Las Vegas were he alive today.

I walked through the casino to the hotel elevator carrying my scriptures, baggage and in company with my wife and four daughters.  I assume we were as much a spectacle to the patrons as the patrons were to us.

While there must be a few folks for whom gambling offers some sort of glamor, I did not detect much of that.  Mostly you could see boredom or desperation on the faces of the typical patron.

They don’t pay the girls who deal on the blackjack tables enough to dress properly.  Poor things only have a tiny remnant of a pair of levis on, not enough to cover their underwear.  Their exposed garters and fishnet stockings betray a style dating back to the 1960’s.  They were practically unclad on top, as well.  I assume these hallmarks of poverty betray an employer who is exploiting their labor without appropriate remuneration.  

The baseball was fun, but Alta went 2-2.  Still searching for the right combination in the batting lineup and trying to fill a gap at 3rd base still, too.  They’ll get there.  Now we’re back in Salt Lake for some more ‘snowball.

General Conference was broadcast live on the TV, but I couldn’t find either an AM or FM station carrying it on the radio.  I wondered why that was.

The LDS Temple is pointed out on the top of the Stratosphere Hotel as a point of interest.  I thought that was interesting.


I noticed an older couple wearing newly-wed attire.  They both had enough miles on them to make them either eternal optimists about the state of matrimony or habitual about their marital affairs.  I like to think them optimists.

Ideas and thoughts

Ideas are things. Real things. They come into existence as we create them. They will become subject to the judgment of God, because our thoughts are perhaps the most real part of us. (See Alma 12: 14.)



We should guard our thoughts as we guard the lives of our children. Our thoughts hold the key to everything else.

This is so important a matter that the Lord tied knowledge of priesthood itself to the thoughts we entertain in the privacy of our minds. Only when our thoughts are worthy are we able to bear the presence of God. (D&C 121: 45.)


If you study the scriptures and then meditate upon them also. You will only develop power within as you do so.